Important Named Reactions in Organic Chemistry
Several commercially important chemical reactions in the field of organic chemistry have been named after their discoverers. Examples of such named reactions include the Cannizzaro reaction, the Clemmensen reduction, Hell-Volhard-Zelinsky reaction, and the Hofmann bromamide reaction. A brief description of some important named reactions in organic chemistry is provided in this article.
Gabriel Phthalimide Synthesis
Gabriel phthalimide synthesis is a method of preparing primary amines from primary alkyl halides. This organic synthesis reaction is named after the German scientist Siegmund Gabriel. An important advantage of this reaction is that it avoids overalkylation. The mechanism of Gabriel phthalimide synthesis involves a nucleophilic substitution reaction executed by an imide ion.
The Gattermann reaction involves the formylation of aromatic rings. This reaction is quite similar to the Friedel-Crafts reaction and is often referred to as Gattermann salicylaldehyde synthesis or Gattermann formylation. This reaction can be employed in order to obtain chlorobenzene or bromobenzene from benzene diazonium chloride.
The Swarts reaction provides an efficient method of converting alkyl chlorides or alkyl bromides into alkyl fluorides. In this reaction, the alkyl bromide or the alkyl chloride is heated in the presence of fluorides of heavy metals (such as silver fluoride). This organic named reaction is also known as Swarts Fluorination and is named after Frederic Swarts. An example of such a reaction is given by the following chemical equation:
CH3Br + AgF → CH3F + AgBr
Note that the chemical equation provided above is in its balanced form. Click here to learn more about balancing chemical equations. It can also be observed that the bromine atoms attached to the alkyl group are replaced by fluorine atoms in the Swarts reaction. To learn more about important named reactions in the field of organic chemistry and the different types of organic reactions, subscribe to the BYJU’S YouTube channel and enable notifications.